Iceland Map
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currency: Icelandic krona (ISK)
Population
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Life expectancy
Literacy rate
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Iceland profile
strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European country;

Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital in the world;

more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe
Iceland history
Settled by Norwegian and Celtic (Scottish and Irish) immigrants during the late 9th and 10th centuries A.D., Iceland boasts the world's oldest functioning legislative assembly, the Althing, established in 930. Independent for over 300 years, Iceland was subsequently ruled by Norway and Denmark. Fallout from the Askja volcano of 1875 devastated the Icelandic economy and caused widespread famine. Over the next quarter century, 20% of the island's population emigrated, mostly to Canada and the US. Denmark granted limited home rule in 1874 and complete independence in 1944. The second half of the 20th century saw substantial economic growth driven primarily by the fishing industry. The economy diversified greatly after the country joined the European Economic Area in 1994, but Iceland was especially hard hit by the global financial crisis in the years following 2008. Literacy, longevity, and social cohesion are first rate by world standards.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Iceland

Conventional short form: Iceland

Local long form: Lydveldid Island

Local short form: Island
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Iceland's capital city is Reykjavik
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Iceland Constitution:

16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944;

amended many times
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Iceland population growth rate: 0.674%
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Iceland highest point: Hvannadalshnukur 2,110 m (at Vatnajokull glacier)
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Iceland lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
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About 1% of Iceland's land is arable.
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ThjórsÁ River is the Longest River in Iceland
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Iceland birth rate is 13 births/1,000 population
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Iceland infant mortality rate is 3 deaths/1,000 live births
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Iceland fertility rate is 1.88 children born/woman
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Iceland climate:

temperate;

moderated by North Atlantic Current;

mild, windy winters;

damp, cool summers
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Top 10 cities of Iceland with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Reykjavík: 120,165
2. Kópavogur: 30,401
3. Hafnarfjörður: 26,031
4. Akureyri: 17,481
5. Reykjanesbær: 14,099
6. Garðabær: 10,584
7. Mosfellsbær: 8,517
8. Árborg: 7,928
9. Akranes: 6,630
10. Fjarðabyggð: 4,736
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Iceland ethnic groups:

homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norse and Celts - 94%

population of foreign origin - 6%
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Iceland Exports:

fish and fish products 40%

aluminum

animal products

ferrosilicon

diatomite
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Iceland Imports:

machinery and equipment

petroleum products

foodstuffs

textiles
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unicameral Althingi (parliament) (63 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
8 regions

1. Austurland
2. Hofudhborgarsvaedhi
3. Nordhurland Eystra
4. Nordhurland Vestra
5. Sudhurland
6. Sudhurnes
7. Vestfirdhir
8. Vesturland
Political parties and leaders:
Independence Party (Sjalfstaedisflokkurinn) (IP) - Bjarni BENEDIKTSSON

Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin-graent frambod) (LGM) - Steingrimur SIGFUSSON

Liberal Party (Frjalslyndi flokkurinn) - Sigurjon THORDARSON
The Movement (Hreyfingin) - Birgitta JONSDOTTIR

Progressive Party (Framsoknarflokkurinn) (PP) - Sigmundur David GUNNLAUGSSON

Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) (SDA) - Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR